Separate Roads to Feminism: Black, Chicana, and White Feminist Movements in America's Second Wave by Benita RothThis examines the emergence of feminist movements from the Civil Rights/Black Liberation movement, the Chicano movement, and the white left in the 1960s and 1970s. The author argues that the 'second wave' was comprised of feminisms: organizationally distinct movements that influenced each other in complex ways. The making of second wave feminisms resulted from decisions that feminists made about their political choices given constraints that affected their activism. These constraints were placed on them by structural inequalities that militated against unity among feminists from different racial/ethnic communities; by loyalties that feminists, particularly feminists of color, felt to other members of their movement communities; and by the necessity of making political decisions within a competitive and complex extra-institutional oppositional milieu.
Call Number: HQ1421 R684 2004
Publication Date: 2004
A History of U. S. Feminisms by Rory C. DickerThe complete, authoritative, and up to date history of American feminism Updated and expanded, the second edition of A History of U.S. Feminisms is an introductory text that will be used as supplementary material for first-year women's studies students or as a brush-up text for more advanced students. Covering the first, second, and third waves of feminism, A History of U.S. Feminisms will provide historical context of all the major events and figures from the late nineteenth century through today. The chapters cover: first-wave feminism, a period of feminist activity during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries which focused primarily on gaining women's suffrage; second-wave feminism, which started in the '60s and lasted through the '80s and emphasized the connection between the personal and the political; and third-wave feminism, which started in the early '90s and is best exemplified by its focus on diversity, intersectionality, queer theory, and sex-positivity.
Publication Date: 2016
The Trouble Between Us: An Uneasy History of White and Black Women in the Feminist Movement by Winifred BreinesInspired by the idealism of the civil rights movement, the women who launched the radical second wave of the feminist movement believed, as a bedrock principle, in universal sisterhood and color-blind democracy. Their hopes, however, were soon dashed. To this day, the failure to create anintegrated movement remains a sensitive and contested issue. In The Trouble Between Us, Winifred Breines explores why a racially integrated women's liberation movement did not develop in the United States.Drawing on flyers, letters, newspapers, journals, institutional records, and oral histories, Breines dissects how white and black women's participation in the movements of the 1960s led to the development of separate feminisms. Herself a participant in these events, Breines attempts to reconcilethe explicit professions of anti-racism by white feminists with the accusations of mistreatment, ignorance, and neglect by African American feminists. Many radical white women, unable to see beyond their own experiences and idealism, often behaved in unconsciously or abstractly racist ways, despitetheir passionately anti-racist stance and hard work to develop an interracial movement. As Breines argues, however, white feminists' racism is not the only reason for the absence of an interracial feminist movement. Segregation, black women's interest in the Black Power movement, class differences,and the development of identity politics with an emphasis on "difference" were all powerful factors that divided white and black women.By the late 1970s and early 1980s white feminists began to understand black feminism's call to include race and class in gender analyses, and black feminists began to give white feminists some credit for their political work. Despite early setbacks, white and black radical feminists eventuallydeveloped cross-racial feminist political projects. Their struggle to bridge the racial divide provides a model for all Americans in a multiracial society.
Call Number: HV1421 B734 2006
Publication Date: 2007
Finding the Movement: Sexuality, Contested Space, and Feminist Activism by Finn EnkeIn Finding the Movement, Finn Enke reveals that diverse women's engagement with public spaces gave rise to and profoundly shaped second-wave feminism. Focusing on women's activism in Detroit, Chicago, and Minneapolis-St. Paul during the 1960s and 1970s, Enke describes how women across race and class created a massive groundswell of feminist activism by directly intervening in the urban landscape. They secured illicit meeting spaces and gained access to public athletic fields. They fought to open bars to women and abolish gendered dress codes and prohibitions against lesbian congregation. They created alternative spaces, such as coffeehouses, where women could socialize and organize. They opened women-oriented bookstores, restaurants, cafes, and clubs, and they took it upon themselves to establish women's shelters, health clinics, and credit unions in order to support women's bodily autonomy.
Feminist Coalitions by Stephanie Gilmore (Editor); Sara M. Evans (Foreword by)Much of the scholarship on second-wave feminism has focused on divisions within the women's movement and its narrow conception of race and class, but the contributors to this volume remind readers that feminists in the 1960s and 1970s also formed many strong partnerships, often allying themselves with a diverse range of social justice efforts on a local grassroots level. These essays focus on coalitions and alliances in which feminists and other activists joined forces to address crucial social justice issues such as reproductive rights, the peace movement, women's health, Christianity and other religions, and neighborhood activism, as well as alliances crossing boundaries of race, class, political views, and sexual identity. The contributors bring fresh perspectives to feminist history by calling attention to how women struggled to include and represent diverse women without minimizing the difficulties of conceptualizing a singular feminism. Contributors are Maria Bevacqua, Tamar Carroll, Marisa Chappell, Andrea Estepa, Sara M. Evans, Amy Farrell, Stephanie Gilmore, Cynthia Harrison, Elizabeth Kaminski, Wendy Kline, Premilla Nadasen, Caryn Neumann, Anne M. Valk, and Emily Zuckerman.
Publication Date: 2008
Tidal Wave: How Women Changed America at Century's End by Sara M. EvansClear-eyed, controversial, and engagingly written, "Tidal Wave" is the best and most complete history of women's emergence in public life as powerful citizens. The author of "Born for Liberty" delivers this definitive history and analysis of the modern American women's movement. of photos.
Call Number: HQ1426 E938 2003
Publication Date: 2003
The World Split Open: How the Modern Women's Movement Changed America by Ruth RosenIn this enthralling narrative-the first of its kind-historian and journalist Ruth Rosen chronicles the history of the American women's movement from its beginnings in the 1960s to the present. Interweaving the personal with the political, she vividly evokes the events and people who participated in our era's most far-reaching social revolution. Rosen's fresh look at the recent past reveals fascinating but little-known information including how the FBI hired hundreds of women to infiltrate the movement. Using extensive archival research and interviews, Rosen challenges readers to understand the impact of the women's movement and to see why the revolution is far from over.