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Research Guides

APA Style for Online Business Resources : Guidelines and Sample Citations

Examples and resources for citing online business sources in APA Style.

APA Style for Online Business Resources

Figuring out how to cite online business sources according to APA Style can be confusing. To make things a little easier, we've provided some sample citations along with the APA Style guidelines used to create them.

In-Text Citations: The APA Formatting and Style Guide from Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL) offers formatting guidelines and examples of in-text citations. The section on In-Text Citations: The Basics covers punctuation, short and long quotations, and summary and paraphrase examples, and the section on In-Text Citations: Author/Authors covers citing an author or authors (multiple authors, no author, two or more works by the same author, etc.) as well as citing indirect sources, electronic sources, and sources without page numbers.

Sample Citations


APA Guidelines:

  • If no DOI is assigned to the online content, include the home page URL for the journal, newsletter, or magazine in the reference. Do not include the name of the database. Use this format: Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Journal article with DOI

Aubert, C., & Reynaud, A. (2005). The impact of regulation on cost efficiency: An empirical analysis of Wisconsin water utilities. Journal of Productivity Analysis, 23(3), 383-409. doi:

Journal article without DOI

Collins, D. (1996). Serving the homeless and low-income communities through business & society/business ethics class projects: The University of Wisconsin-Madison plan. Journal of Business Ethics, 15(1), 67-85. Retrieved from

Magazine or trade publication article

Cernivec, S. (2014, April). The heart of beer: Specialty malts add variety to craft beer. Beverage Industry, 105(4), 54. Retrieved from

Newspaper article

Harding, R. (2014, June 30). The productivity puzzle. Financial Times. Retrieved from

To cite sources that are not articles, such as blog posts, data files, dissertations, industry reports, newsletters, tweets, websites, and white papers, please see the examples below:

APA Guidelines:

  • Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material is likely to change over time (e.g., nonarchived wiki pages).
  • Database information may be given for items of limited circulation.
  • For dates that cannot be determined, use n.d. (for no date). If the date can reasonably be approximated, put ca. (for circa) followed by the year, inside brackets.
  • If the issuing organization assigned a number (e.g., report number, contract number, monograph number) to the report, give that number in parentheses immediately after the title.
  • If additional information is necessary for identification and retrieval of a reference, it may be included in brackets immediately after the title and any parenthetical information.
  • Identify the publisher as part of the retrieval statement unless the publisher has been identified as the author: Retrieved from Agency Name website: http://www.xxxxxxx
    • If the publisher has been identified as the author, use the format Retrieved from http://xxxxx
  • Do not italicize the titles of blog posts, online forum messages, comments, status updates, and so forth. Do italicize titles of reports and other documents that stand alone. If the distinction is unclear for a particular document (as may sometimes be the case when the organization of a site is itself unclear), authors should use their own judgment to decide whether to italicize. Err on the side of not italicizing.
  • If you cannot find the reference example you need in the Publication Manual, choose the example that is most like your source and follow that format. Sometimes you may need to combine elements of more than one reference format.



Report, individual author

Hamilton, R. (2013). Germany business forecast report - Q4 2013 [BMI industry report]. Retrieved from ABI/INFORM Complete database.

Report, group or corporate author

Business Monitor International. (2014). Egypt shipping report - Q4 2014. Retrieved from ABI/INFORM Complete database.

GlobalData. (2014, May). Wisconsin electric power company (WEC) - alternative energy - deals and alliances profile (Reference Code GDAE123254D). Retrieved from ABI/INFORM Complete database.


Annual Reports and SEC Filings

Annual report from company website

Netflix. (2014, January 31). Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2013. Retrieved from

Target Corporation. (2014, March 14). 2013 annual report. Retrieved from

SEC/EDGAR filings (2014, July 24). Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ended June 30, 2014. Retrieved from U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission website:


Bloomberg Professional


Bloomberg L.P. (n.d.). Wausau Paper Corp quarterly profitability ratios in USD, 03/31/12 to 03/31/14. Retrieved July 31, 2014 from Bloomberg Professional database.

Bloomberg L.P. (n.d.). US dollar swaps (30/360, S/A) curve, last and 1M, 08/28/14 15:02:44 and 07/28/14 [Graph]. Retrieved August 28, 2014 from Bloomberg Professional database.

Report, individual author

Moskowitz, M., & Kim, M. (2014, March 5). IBM: The answer is Watson. What is the newest part of IBM's big data/analytics growth engine? [J.P. Morgan North America Equity Research report]. Retrieved from Bloomberg Professional database.


Business Source Complete

Report, group or corporate author

C. Barnes & Co. (2013). Dairy Products Mfg. Industry (NAICS 31151) [2014 Industry & Market series]. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.

IHS. (2014, July 1). Country reports - Ukraine: Economics and country risk. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.

MarketLine. (2012, May 18). Apple, Inc. SWOT analysis. (Reference Code 5B0A0C20-9BB6-4284-A575-AC0F2261F45C) [Company profile]. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.



Newsletter article, no author

Corporate inversions: potential use of executive authority pending Congressional action. (2014, August 14). Federal Taxes Weekly Alert Newsletter (RIA). Retrieved from


Country Commercial Guides on

Corporate author, government report (HTML version: Specific section of a report)

International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. (2016, April 17). Bulgaria - market overview. In Bulgaria country commercial guide. Retrieved from



HTML version: Specific section of a report, group or corporate author

CountryWatch. (n.d.). Cultural etiquette. In Belgium country review. Retrieved August 19, 2014 from CountryWatch database.

PDF version: Specific section of a report, individual author or editor

Social overview. (2014). In D. Y. Coleman (Ed.), Belgium country review (pp. 154-207). Retrieved from CountryWatch database.

PDF version: Entire report, individual author or editor

Coleman, D. Y. (Ed.). (2014). Belgium country review. Retrieved from CountryWatch database.


Google Finance and Yahoo Finance

Web page, no author

Financial statements for Harley-Davidson Inc. (n.d.). Retrieved July 31, 2014 from

HOG historical prices, Harley Davidson, Inc. common stock. (n.d.). Retrieved September 2, 2014 from



Report, individual author

Diment, D. (2014, June). IBISWorld industry report 71211: Museums in the US. Retrieved from IBISWorld database.


IMF eLibrary Data


International Monetary Fund. (n.d.). Government finance selected indicators: Albania. In International Financial Statistics (IFS). Retrieved June 10, 2016 from


IndustriusCFO Industry Metrics


IndustriusCFO. (n.d.). Industry metrics four years - NAICS 31183 - tortilla manufacturing. Retrieved April 28, 2016 from IndustriusCFO Industry Metrics database.



Journal article without DOI

Garlock, D. C., & Khalaf, A. N. (2014, July 18). Debt vs. equity: Myths, best practices and practical considerations for U.S. tax aspects of related-party financings. TAXES - The Tax Magazine92(8), 37-66. Retrieved from

Mergent Online


Mergent. (n.d.). Johnson Controls Inc company financials as reported annual balance sheet, 09/30/2009 to 09/30/2013. Retrieved August 20, 2014 from Mergent Online database.


Mintel Academic

Report, individual author

O'Donnell, F. (2014, July). Marketing to sports fans - US. Retrieved from Mintel Academic database.


OneSource Global Business Browser

Report, group or corporate author

Profile & Financials

Avention. (n.d.). Company summary for Wausau Paper Corp. Retrieved August 29, 2014 from OneSource Global Business Browser database.

Avention. (2014, October 24). Ratio comparisons for Wausau Paper Corp. Retrieved from OneSource Global Business Browser database.

News & Analysis: Analysts' Reports

GlobalData. (2013, December 19). Wausau Paper Corporation - financial analysis review (Reference Code: GDPP34130FA). Retrieved from OneSource Global Business Browser database.


Policy Brief

Report, individual author

Bhaduri, A. (2014, January). What remains of the theory of demand management in a globalizing world? (No. 130, 2014) [Policy brief]. Retrieved from Levy Economics Institute of Bard College website:


ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global

Doctoral dissertation, from a commercial database

Convertino, G. J. (2008). A perspective on current human resources practices by human resource executives at institutions of higher education (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global database. (UMI Number: 3329877)



Data set

Infogroup. (2015). U.S. Businesses [Data file]. Retrieved January 28, 2015 from ReferenceUSA database.

Infogroup. (2015). U.S. Consumers / Lifestyles [Data file]. Retrieved January 28, 2015 from ReferenceUSA database.


Simmons OneView

Data set

Simmons Research LLC. (2012). Spring 2012 NCS adult study 12-month [Data file]. Retrieved August 21, 2014 from Simmons OneView database.


Websites, Internet Message Boards, Electronic Mailing Lists, and Social Media

Blog post

Brown, J. M. (2014, September 1). How corporate share buybacks are destroying America [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Blog comment

Ericson, R. (2014, September 1). Re: How corporate share buybacks are destroying America [Blog comment]. Retrieved from

Twitter update or tweet

Yellen, J. [The_Yellen]. (2014, September 2). Why a rising jobless rate will be good for Yellen [Tweet]. Retrieved from

Web page, group or corporate author

Uber. (n.d.). About Uber. Retrieved September 2, 2014 from


White paper

Report, group or corporate author

U.S. Postal Service, Office of Inspector General. (2014, January 7). Providing non-bank financial services for the underserved (Report Number: RARC-WP-14-007) [White paper]. Retrieved from